Paper and its history.
Today the paper - one of the most popular materials. It is used to store information, to create books that store and transmit cultural experience through generations for many centuries. To find such a place for writing stuff man long sought new ways to letters from the knock-out icons on the stones and bones of dead animals to the letter fish bone on palm leaves.
Further painted on wooden wax tablets with a pointed stick. But it was short-lived. In China, the first burned the characters on the bamboo vine, and then began to write a special ink on silk scrolls.
But the most progressive step forward to the claimed invention did the Egyptians, who used to record information papyrus. On one widely used parchment - is a special dressing calfskin, which also figured prominently in the evolution of materials for writing.
Around the same time with parchment appears first real paper. Birthplace of her still consider China, although it is known that the technology was borrowed by residents of this country the Turkmen. It was the first to learn Turkmen dissolve wool in water, extruding it, and dried. So very thin felt. The Chinese have replaced wool fiber and got just that most closely resembles a modern paper.
Their first sheets are made from the bark of the mulberry tree and bamboo fibers. The secret of making paper for a long time held in China in the strictest confidence. The first sheets of paper were very expensive and exchanged on expensive fabrics and precious metals. Yet for a long time a monopoly on the manufacture of paper, China could not keep.
Very soon, this material began to produce in other countries. In the year 610 an itinerant Buddhist monk Dan-ho made a secret of making writing material for the border of China, specifically in Japan. Along with the secret of making paper, he shared with the Japanese people, and recipes for the carcass.
Japanese are more refined technology. They through some testing, found a much more convenient and high-quality raw materials. They began to use not only the bark of mulberry, and silk cocoons. After collecting the cocoons processed into a homogeneous mass, and left to dry. After which formed two layers - top and bottom shelkovata fibrous layer.
These innovations have allowed the Japanese paper products greatly exceed the quality of Chinese. Japan has gradually emerged workshops, and then the whole factory to manufacture the most durable paper, which was titled "your." This paper could stand a lot more bends than our current paper, so instead of glass in Japan in homes is often used is "your."
Gradually, the art of making paper spread to the whole world. Various technologies were used in different countries. Soon the paper was so common material that the high price of this product has become outdated and has fallen sharply. Now, in the east of paper made books, charms, fans and much more.
In Europe the first paper shops have appeared in the twelfth century in most developed countries. In Italy, Britain, France and Germany, the paper has become an indispensable material in many areas of life from the state apparatus to trade and culture.
From France, the paper first came to Russia. In the village Ivanteevka outside Moscow was built, this paper mill. But she soon underwent a very extensive fire, and all production was burnt to ashes. A second attempt to manufacture their own Russian paper was undertaken only in the seventeenth century by Patriarch Nikon. It is on the order paper mills have been erected in Parham and Yauza.
And when Peter the Great, the production was finally put on a grand scale. He saw that the two mills can not cope with growing demands to actively expanding the country, had built several factories for the production of paper, but the European model.
That these enterprises did not need the raw materials, he decreed that all inhabitants of the worn cloth rag and handed over to the appropriate authorities. Same as production became secondary and cheap. Paper production in Russia has expanded rapidly, and soon to import paper from Europe was no longer any need.
Paper today - one of the most widely used in daily practice materials. Since the beginning of the production of paper she began to decorate the house. Paper paste over the wall. On sheets of paint and write. Books in one the most reading country in the world are printed exclusively on paper. Paper has become a raw material for making boxes, packaging and utensils.
Paper makes a variety of decorative products. Today, this industry has the most extensive distribution. Paper as one of the most accessible material has a magical property is easily transformed, which is often used in production.